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Bid: JPY Time left: 4day s. Bid: 3, JPY Time left: 4day s. Bid: 3, JPY Time left: 1day s. Bid: 1, JPY Time left: 2day s. Bid: JPY Time left: 3day s. Bid: 5, JPY Time left: 2day s. Bid: 3, JPY Time left: 2day s. Bid: 6, JPY Time left: 5day s. Bid: 3, JPY Time left: 5day s. Bid: 1, JPY Time left: 4day s. Bid: JPY Time left: 6day s. Bid: JPY Time left: 17hour s.
Bid: 10, JPY Time left: 16hour s. Bid: 1, JPY Time left: 1day s. Bid: 1, JPY Time left: 3day s. Bid: 2, JPY Time left: 1day s. Bid: 10, JPY Time left: 5day s. Bid: 4, JPY Time left: 19hour s. Bid: JPY Time left: 18hour s. Bid: 68, JPY Time left: 3day s. Bid: 6, JPY Time left: 3day s. Bid: 1, JPY Time left: 18hour s. Bid: JPY Time left: 5day s. With comparing experiment on data sets with different degrees of semantic relations using some other classic algorithms, we analyze the reliability of our measures and other properties.
The Hidden semi-CRF detects the words together with their part-of-speech reregardlesswhether the words are in the system dictionary or not. A new-words-generatingframework is also built for training and testing, under which the definition and distridistributionof the new words conforms to the characteristic of the ones in real text. Theproposed framework enhances the performance of new words detecting and POS tagging,so that the overall precision of the system for Chinese lexical analysis could be furtherincreased.
The experiment results show that the proposed method is capable of detectingeven low frequency new words, which in return increases the overall precision of Chineseword segmentation and POS tagging in Chinese lexical analysis. A corpus with structured documents is generated from Chinese Wikipedia pages. Then considering of the hyperlinks, text overlaps and word frequencies, word pairs with semantic relations are explored.
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Words can be self clustered into groups with tight semantic relations. We roughly measure the semantic relatedness with different document based algorithms and analyze the reliability of our measures in comparing experiment.
We present pragmatics and topic information to the learner. There are two roles of pragmatics and topic information.lessnopocaste.gq
The first one is to clarify the verse semantic acid the second is to make "Analects of Confucius" contents familiar to the learner. The experiments evidenced the effectiveness of the presented pragmatics and topic information that is specific to increase enthusiasm for learning and enhance understanding of the contents. Emotion estimation from textual input has also become active as natural language processing NLP technology develops.
However, when it comes to negative sentences in Chinese, the original emotion estimation may be reversed which makes obtaining correct recognition results difficult if we do not consider the effect of negative words. It is necessary to correctly master the meaning of these particular words and then translate accurately between two languages. Because of the complex corresponding relationship in Chinese and Japanese, when building Japanese-Chinese machine translation, it is easy to introduce vagueness.
Among the mistakenly translations in existing commercial translation software, most of them are caused by the negative expression in the sentence. In this paper, through analyzing the negative expression ways in Chinese and Japanese languages, we investigated the translation of Japanese-Chinese negative sentences by using the selection rules of Chinese negative words and position rules. It can help people acquire the useful information from reviews or comments in the Internet. In Chinese context, there is a syntactic construction called split phrase that always carries emotional information, which cannot be recognized accurately by general lexical analysis.
In order to find an effective way for recognizing this construction, we study the classification and calculation rules of split phrases in Chinese. In this paper, an emotion recognizing method based on the statistic information and grammatical feature is proposed and evaluated. The comparing experimental results show that the emotion recognition rate is improved efficiently. In this paper, an integration of multiple classifiers is presented for SDA of Chinese.
A portion of the Penn Chinese Treebank was manually annotated with semantic dependency structure. Then each of the three classifiers was trained on the same training data. All three of the classifiers were used to produce candidate relations for test data and the candidate relation that had the majority vote was chosen.
This paper presents a method to automatically extract SF from a Japanese-English bilingual corpus. The extraction process matches Japanese noun and English noun in each bilingual sentence in a bilingual corpus using a bilingual dictionary.
The experimental results show that this method performs very well in automatically extracting SF for machine translation. Then, we discuss a problem of SF based machine translation from the result of the evaluation experiment using extracted SF. Topic analysis entails category classification and topic discovery and classification. Dealing with news has special requirements that standard classification approaches typically cannot handle. The algorithms proposed in this paper are able to do online training for both category and topic classification as well as discover new topics as they arise.
Both algorithms are based on a keyword extraction algorithm that is applicable to any language that has basic morphological analysis tools. As such, both the category classification and topic discovery and classification algorithms can be easily used by multiple languages.
Through experimentation the algorithms are shown to have high precision and recall in tests on English and Japanese. Sentence aligned parallel corpora are more efficient than non-aligned parallel corpora for cross language information retrieval and machine translation applications. In this paper, we present a new approach to align sentences in bilingual parallel corpora based on the text character length between successive punctuation marks. A probabilistic score is assigned to each proposed correspondence of texts, based on the scaled difference of lengths of the two texts in characters and the variance of this difference.
Using this score, the time required for punctuation marks matching decreased and the sentence alignment accuracy increased. Using this new approach, we could achieve an error reduction of Moreover, the proposed approach result outperforms Melamed and Moore's approach results.
If the two languages use the same alphabet, the same proper nouns can be found in either language. However, if the two languages use different alphabets, the names must be transliterated. Short vowels are not usually marked on Arabic words in almost all Arabic documents except very important documents like the Muslim and Christian holy books. Moreover, most Arabic words have a syllable consisting of a consonant-vowel combination CV , which means that most Arabic words contain a short or long vowel between two successive consonant letters. That makes it difficult to create English-Arabic transliteration pairs, since some English letters may not be matched with any romanized Arabic letter.
In the present study, we present different approaches for extraction of transliteration proper-noun pairs from parallel corpora based on different similarity measures between the English and romanized Arabic proper nouns under consideration. The strength of our new system is that it works well for low-frequency proper noun pairs. We evaluate the new approaches presented using two different English-Arabic parallel corpora.
Most of our results outperform previously published results in terms of precision, recall, and F-Measure. This paper presents a method for automatic extraction of SF from a Japanese-English bilingual corpus. The extraction processuses a bilingual dictionary to match Japanese and English nouns in each sentence pair. The experimental results using a Japanese-English bilingual corpus show that this methodperforms very well in automatically extracting SF for machine translation. In addition,we evaluate the extracted SF in SF based machine translation. In particular,the causative form takes the shape of a suffix.
In Chinese, the causative form constitutes an independent word. In our previous studies on Super-Function Based MachineTranslation SFBMT , we have found that causative sentences are very frequently usedand difficult to translate correctly, the over use of causative sentences can be dangerousas it may introduce ambiguity in the translation. In this paper, we discuss the challenges in handling Japanese causative sentences in an SFBMT system; we present ashallow method for translating causative sentences by using some fixed rules and SuperFunctions SF.
In the present research, sufficient Chinese-Japanese causative sentencepatterns have been employed as a language-database for experiments, which proves thesuggested method can effectively improve translation quality within the range under discussion. They are used for everything from searching to describing a document.
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In these cases, keywords can, typically, only be extracted from documents that belong to a collection or using a large amount of annotated training data. Theimportance of extracting keywords without a document collection has been gradually increasing due to the Internet. In this paper, a keyword extraction algorithm designed withnews in mind that requires neither a document collection or training data is presented. It uses noun phrases as its keyword representation and takes in document statistics toderive its weighting scheme.
量子力学30講 (物理学30講シリーズ) by 戸田 盛和 - PDF Drive
Through experimentation it is shown that the quality of thekeywords extracted from the proposed algorithm are better than standard algorithms forboth information retrieval and humans. Understanding the meaning of language is the goal of natural language processing and research on semantic analysis.
Understanding emotion is one of the goals of affective computing. The two areas of artificial intelligence have recently come together for understanding emotion in text. In order to help in this pursuit, this paper describes a Chinese emotion ontology based on HowNet and its construction. The ontology should go a long way in helping to understand, classifiy, and recognize emotion in Chinese.